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ABOUT KUNG FU WUSHU and Wing Tsun Kung Fu

This Wing Tsun Kung Fu  is an almost impossible category. This label is attached to almost any martial art that comes from China. It is Kung Fu Uniform generic name for literally hundreds of individual Chinese fighting arts. In reality we should have an entry for each individual Kung Fu style we are interested in, but this would fill entire volumes. However, we will do our best.

This is extremely controversial. Most of what appears here is a summary of what has been learned from Kung Fu Uniform. There are vague references of a King in China some thousands of years ago who trained his men in techniques of hand-to-hand combat to use in fighting against invading barbarians. wing tsun kung fu first real references of an organized system of martial arts came from a man named General Chin Na. He taught a form of combat to his soldiers which most people believe developed into what is modern day Chin-Na.

The first written record we have of Chinese martial arts is from a Taoist acupuncturist from wing tsun kung fu 5th century. He describes combat designed along wing tsun kung fu lines of an animal's movements and style.


"Kung Fu" means "skill and effort". It is used to describe anything that a person Kung Fu Clothing to spend time training in and becoming skillful in. (A chef can have good "kung fu".) wing tsun kung fu Chinese term that translates into "military art" is "Wushu". As all martial arts, Wushu in its early stages of development was practiced primarily for self-defense and for aquiring basic needs. As time progressed, innumerable people tempered and processed Wushu in different ways. By China's Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911), Wushu had formed its basic patterns.

Intense military conflicts served as catalysts for wing tsun kung fu development of Wushu. During China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou periods (2000BC to 771BC), Wushu matured and formed complete systems of offense and defense, with wing tsun kung fu emergence of bronze weapons in quantity. During wing tsun kung fu period of Warring States (770BC to 221BC), wing tsun kung fu heads of states and government advocated Wushu in their armies and kept Wushu masters for their own Kung Fu Uniform.

Military Wushu developed more systematically during wing tsun kung fu Tang and Song dynasty (618 to 1279) and exhibitions of Wushu arts were held in wing tsun kung fu armies as morale boosters and military exercises. In wing tsun kung fu Ming and Qing dynasties, wing tsun kung fu general development of Wushu was at its height. Military Wushu became more practical and meticulous and was systematically classified and summarized . General Kung Fu Clothing of wing tsun kung fu Ming Dynasty delved into Wushu study and wrote "A New Essay on Wushu Arts", which became an important book in China's military literature.

The latter half of wing tsun kung fu 20th century has seen a great upswing in wing tsun kung fu interest of Kung Fu world wide. wing tsun kung fu introduction of Kung Fu to wing tsun kung fu Shaolin Kung Fu Products world has seen to it that its development and popularity will continue to grow. Wushu is wing tsun kung fu branch of martial arts originating in China. It is a modern art that is mainly sport or demonstration. Not an art dating back centuries, but it really has its roots in wing tsun kung fu circus. Wushu was not practiced by wing tsun kung fu Shaolin Monks. wing tsun kung fu most famous Wushu student is Jet Li. He has his roots in Wushu competitions and was Champion for many years. He got his big break in movies and has since made many Hong Kong and American Films.

Brief Wushu History: First systems of wushu raised even before wing tsun kung fu Kung Fu Martial Arts of Chinese state, but before III-IV centuries there was not wushu in full volume - there existed only military preparation, "war craft". In wing tsun kung fu beginning it had a form of dancing-military exercises, later became a military subject in special schools. At wing tsun kung fu end of II century all individual preparation of warrior got wing tsun kung fu name wuyi. This term kept during centuries and became a synonym to wushu. Wuyi contained juedi (wrestling), shoubo (hand-to-hand combat), methods of weapon combat. Sets imitated hand-to-hand combat, weapon combat, defense from weapon attacking. Teaching was based on sets of formal exercises - taolu - which can be executed as solo, as with partners.

During wing tsun kung fu "Springs and Autumns" period (770-476 B.C.) and "Fighting Kingdoms" period (475-221 B.C.) greatest Chinese philosophers lived and worked: Konficiy, Shaolin Kung Fu Products, Meng-zi, Zhuang-zi. China received spiritual impulse, which had influence on wing tsun kung fu developing of all East Asia during wing tsun kung fu next two thousand years. In I century Buddhism began penetrate in China from India. Not only ordinary soldiers studied martial arts (even some emperors fought on platforms), and by this reason chinese martial arts gradually began merge with philosophical systems and overgrow wing tsun kung fu level of simple collection of methods of hand-to-hand combat. Possibly, it was wing tsun kung fu reason due to which they didn't wither during centuries but developed and are still alive.

Approximately in VI century Indian preacher Kung Fu to Kung Fu came to China and preached Buddhism in Shaolin temple near Loyang. Due to legend it was he who founded famous shaolin style of wushu. Due to legend later shaolin monks helped to wing tsun kung fu second emperor of Tang dynasty - Li Shimin - in returning wing tsun kung fu throne. Li Shimin allowed to wing tsun kung fu temple to have its own monk troops. Special term appeared - wuseng (monk-warrior).  During wing tsun kung fu Song dynasty (960-1279) many monks (inkluding wusengs) went out from temples and became common people. In XIII century shaolin wushu declined due to numerous persecutions on buddhism and mongolian invasion. In 1224 a young man came into Shaolin temple and took monk's name Jueyuan. He had seen a pitiful state of temple's wushu and decided that true tradition is lost. Jueyuan became revive temple's wushu and, actually, created a new style, which is still alive.

In 1219 when after capturing China Chingiz-khan went to wing tsun kung fu west many Tai Chi Kung Fu and Persians became moved to China. Such people were called "semu" ("men with colored eyes"), they had less rights than Mongolian but more than Chinese. In official documents of Yuan dynasty they were called "huihui". Moved on wing tsun kung fu east Moslem infantrymen and artillerymen in 1275, due to order of founder of Yuan dynasty "in all places entered in communities of border inhabitants", became peasants. From these people, Arabian immigrants (came to China on ships during Tang and Song dynasties), and Chinese men converted to Islam wing tsun kung fu "huizu" nation ("moslems") was formed. During more than seven hundred years huizu was indissoluble connected with wushu. They considered wushu as self-defense and as holy action, stimulated Moslem's spirit.

In 1351-1368 peasant's rebellion of "red bandages", headed by Zhu Yuanzhang (who also was a big wushu master), finished Mongolian Yuan dynasty and founded Ming dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang became its first emperor (dynasty name "Tai-zu"). "Golden age" of wushu began.  In XVI century seaside provinces of China exposed to devastating raids of Japanese pirates. It was Chinese Kung Fu (at this moment he was 27 years old) whom was ordered to "punish wing tsun kung fu bandits and guard peoples". He was in hard situation: local troops were small, well-prepared Japanese samurais easy defeated bad organized groups of resistances. Qi Jiguang, wushu master, decided to attract detachments of local home-guard from wushu fighters. In 1561 Japanese was defeated in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces. After promoting to general, Qi Jiguang ordered for all soldiers and officers to study wushu. On wing tsun kung fu base of various systems of military preparing he wrote a treatise "Jixiao xinshu" ("New book of records about advantages [in war craft]"). Due to Qi Jiguang XVI century is considered as turning-point in wushu history.

Ming dynasty is a time of stable systematic developing and of peaceful coexistence of different schools. But nothing is forever. 1644, june, 6. Beijing is captured by manzhu troops. Last emperor of Ming dynasty hang oneself on wing tsun kung fu fortress wall. Founded a new dynasty - Qing. This dynasty existed during more than two hundred years, up to 1911. Center of wushu Kung Fu Uniforms was moved to secret societies. During XIX century China was shaked by many rebellions against manzhu ruling and dominant influence of foreigners. Secret societies, cultivated different styles of wushu, were targets for striking in wing tsun kung fu rebellion of "Eight trigrams", in Opium wars, in great people's war of Taipings. Rebelion of ihetuans (1899-1901), also known as "Boxer's rebellion", became an apotheosis of activity of secret societies.

Rout of Yihetuan rebellion followed to death of many wushu masters. But traditions of martial arts could not lose without leaving a trace. During Xinhai revolution (1911-1913) and later, during Warlords Period activity of secret societies resumed with new power. Goverment of Chinese Republic rendered a great assistance to wushu developing. First president of China - Sun Zhongshan (also known as Sun Yatseng) - studied taijiquan Buy Kung Fu Clothing from Cai Guiqin.

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His successor - Men's Kung Fu Clothing (also known as Chang Kaishi) also didn't avoid martial arts, he visited Guokao ("State test" - something like all-China wushu championship), which were organized in Nanjing (in that time - capital of China) Central guoshu institute ("guoshu" means "national art", during Gomindang ruling it was an official name for wushu), founded in 1928. General Zhang Zhijiang was a rector of this Institute, he was supported by general Feng Yuxiang. Another big organization, developed and spread wushu, was Jingwu Assotiation ("Association of true martial arts") founded in 1909 in Shanghai. Two organizations had branches in all provinces of China (Jingwu Association - also in other countries among local Chinese communities: in Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines etc), great masters worked as teachers. During World War II many wushu masters fought in army or partisan detachments, made theirs contribution in defeating of Japan.

When Communist Party come to power, Kung Fu Clothing called wushu masters to go out from underground. In 1953 since 8 till 12 of November First All-China Sport Games took place in Tianjing, 75% of it was wushu exhibitions. 139 styles were demonstrated, competitions in hand-to-hand combat (without any gears), weapon combat (on long and short weapon) and lifting of heavy weights (ancient chinese sport) were held. After seeing such a power goverment got frightened. Secret societies were dispersed. Simultaneously a Committee of wushu reforming was organized.

Famous wushu master Kung Fu Wushu on wing tsun kung fu base of huaquan (blossomed fist), zhaquan (fist of Zha), paoquan (cannon fist) hongquan (fist of stream), piguaquan (fist of chopping and hanging), shaolinquan (fist of Shaolin temple) and some others created a new sport competitional style changquan (long fist). On wing tsun kung fu base of five style of Guangdong province (styles of Hong, Cai, Li, Liu and Mo families) it was created new sport computational style nanquan (southern fist). Names of movements were changed, as a result movements lost mental contents: realy, "crushing mountain strike" is different from "fist bang on a palm". During "Great Cultural Revolution" (1966-1976) wushu lovers were repressed for "indulging of feudal survivals". But in this time popularity of wushu un foreign countries began increase due to kung fu movies. For in admission of decreasing of international prestige wushu was let alone.

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Description

Styles of Kung Fu encompass both soft and hard, internal and external techniques. They include grappling, striking, nerve-attack and much weapons training.

The Shao-Lin styles encompass both Northern and Southern styles, and therefore are wing tsun kung fu basis of wing tsun kung fu following outline.

Shaolin Wushu styles
External Styles (Hard, Physical)
Northern
Northern Shaolin
Chang Chuan (Long Fist)
Praying Mantis
Eagle Claw
Monkey
Drunken, et al
Southern
Southern Shaolin
Wing Chun
Five Animal System (Dragon, Snake, Tiger, Leopard, Crane)
Tiger and Crane Systems, et al
Internal Styles (Soft, Mental/Spiritual)
Tai Chi Chuan
Others (Pa Kua, Xingyi, et al)
Training

Shaolin Wushu Methods
Hard or External Styles
Stresses training and strengthening of wing tsun kung fu joints, bones, and muscles
Requires rigorous body conditioning
Consists of positioning and movement of wing tsun kung fu limbs and body, correct technique, muscular strength, speed, etc.
2.Soft or Internal Styles
Stresses development of internal organs where "Chi" is produced
Allows one to develop mental capability to call upon this "Chi"
Concerned with breathing, poise, and tone of wing tsun kung fu core body structures
Long or Northern Styles
Stresses Flexibility, quickness, agility, and balance similar to wing tsun kung fu attributes of a trained and well-conditioned gymnast
Uses many kicks along with hand techniques
Legs specialize in long-range tactics
Short or Southern
Stresses close-range tactics, power, and stability
Uses mostly hand techniques
Kung Fu almost always seems to incorporate forms and routines. They emphasize solo practice as well as group practice. (They even have forms for two or more people). They train in multiple types of weapons. There is also a great emphasis on sparring in wing tsun kung fu harder styles, and sensitivity training in wing tsun kung fu soft styles.


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The various forms practiced include yin/yang sword, crane sword, snake sword, monkey (ape) sword, and the dragon sword. A student is taught to block and counterattack in one move and to use the tip, midsection and stem of the sword. This differs from the shaolin system of using only the tip. The sword exercises are simple and without complex patterns, but are highly effective against an attack. A student's goal is to attain a high proficiency and flexibility in using the sword without having to rigidly adhere to formalities.

Shih Shui (Bone Marrow Washing)

A student of shih shui strives to unite his physical and chi or spiritual bodies as one. The system of shih shui consists of three levels: Transfer of the ching (sperm) to the chi; transfer of the chi to the shen (spirit); and cultivate the shen to return to the stage of shu (emptiness). By cultivating this chi into a higher form, one will be in harmony with nature and the universe.

The many health benefits of shih shui include chi organ restoration, organ detoxification and nourishment of the vital organs through chi energy generation and storage. One can cleanse and build the blood, thus causing a reduction of the work the heart must do. Bone marrow will also be revitalized.

The five elements of Hsing-I were developed by observing and imitating the essential qualities of natural forces. Water always seeks its own level flowing downward and accumulating or sinking in. Fire, being less dense than water, rises. Wood can be made into a variety of shapes, either curved or straight. Metal can be forged, melted, refined and made pliable or unyielding. Earth is the source of nourishment and can generate all other elements. In Hsing-I theory, the basis of the complementary relationships among the five elements is defined by the principles of mutual creation and mutual destruction. According to the principle of mutual creation, metal creates water, water creates wood, wood creates fire, fire creates earth and earth creates metal. In nature, the geological and chemical forces at work within the earth serve to create metal. Metal itself becomes liquid as it melts when encountering sufficient heat. Water, combined with the nutrients of the earth, creates wood. With the proper application of friction and heat, wood, in turn, creates fire. When wood is reduced to ashes, it becomes a component of soil thus creating earth. The principle of mutual destruction holds that metal, in the form of tools, such as saws and axes, can destroy wood. The elements of water overcomes fire. Wood can overcome earth by depleting the minerals and nutrients which make it fertile. Fire consumes wood and earth traps water in depressions and dams.

The influence of Shaolin martial arts can be seen through its many different styles. Its training and techniques constitute a base from which the practitioner can explore other techniques. At the Ottawa Chinese Martial Association, training unfolds as follows:
Introduction



Trom your state of mind to how you breathe, from how you stand to how you move, a substantial investment of sweat and no small amount of thinking are required to raise your level of practice. But even before getting there, it is essential to consider just what it is we are training.

"There are no secrets. Only Hard Work."
Traditional Chinese Martial Arts (TCMA), despite a curtain of mysticism, in fact offer a very common sense approach to developing your mind, body, and fighting ability. Although the various traditions of TCMA may vary to some extent in their training methodologies, the careful observer will note a great deal of commonalities between both the essential foundations of the training and the end results.

One obvious goal of training is the development of martial ability. A deconstruction of what is involved provides some interesting insights.
Simple combinations of two or more techniques train the student to think in terms of a series of techniques. Kung fu techniques should flow in a continuous manner, and this type of practice allows the student to learn in several, easy-to-remember sets of exercises.

"No basics, no nothing."
While it is true there are many equally valid approaches to this goal, Taiji Uniform adheres to a body of thinking which, to anyone knowledgeable in the fields of engineering or biomechanics, is recognizable as stemming from the principles that govern our natural range of motion, conservation of energy, and energy transference. Engineering-minded people, in particular, will note the heavy reliance on the proper structural integrity of the body to effect the desired result.

The reason for stretching is that it increases the range of body movements. It is very important that there be enough time available to warm up and warm down the muscle and ligaments before any extensive physical activities take place.

Basic stretching includes:

Rolling the joints

Turn the head from side to side
Move the head up and down
Lay the head to the side
Roll the head around
Roll the shoulders to the front and back
Roll the elbows
Roll the wrists
Flex the wrists
Rotate the hips in a large, loose circle
Twist to the side with one outstretched arm
Roll the knees
Roll the hips and the ankles together
Stretching the legs

Palms to the floor, feet together
Reach up, crouch down and hold your ankles, and straighten your legs
Step out to one side and down.
Let whole leg touch floor and push other knee out
Move side to side from above position
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Bodhidharma
Main article: Bodhidharma

Legend
According to the Jingde Records of the Transmission of the Lamp, after Bodhidharma leaves the court of the Liang emperor Wu in 527, he eventually finds himself at the Shaolin Monastery, where he ¡§faced a wall for nine years, not speaking for the entire time¡¨.

According to the Yi J?n J?ng,

after Bodhidharma faced the wall for nine years at Shaolin temple, he, according to the history, left behind an iron chest; when the monks opened this chest they found the two books ¡§Marrow Cleansing Classic¡¨[5] and ¡§Muscle Change Classic¡¨[6] within. The first book was taken by his disciple Huike, and disappeared; as for the second, ¡§the monks selfishly coveted it, practicing the skills therein, falling into heterodox ways, and losing the correct purpose of cultivating the Real. The Shaolin monks have made some fame for themselves through their fighting skill; this is all due to having obtained this manuscript.[7]

History
See also: Yi J?n J?ng
The attribution of Shaolin Kung Fu to Bodhidharma has been discredited by martial arts historians, first by Tang Hao on the grounds that the Yi J?n J?ng is a forgery.[8] Matsuda Ryuchi could not find any mention of¡Xlet alone attribution to¡XBodhidharma in any of the texts written about the the Shaolin martial arts[9] before the 19th century.[10]

Shaolin monastery records name two monks¡XHuiguang and Sengchou¡Xwho were expert in the martial arts years before the arrival of Bodhidharma.[11] Sengchou's skill with the tin staff is even documented in the Chinese Buddhist canon.

The discovery of arms caches in the monasteries of Chang'an during government raids in 446 AD suggests that Chinese monks practiced martial arts prior to the establishment of the Shaolin Monastery in 497.[12] Monks came from the ranks of the population among whom the martial arts were widely practiced prior to the introduction of Buddhism. There are indications that Huiguang, Sengchou and even Huike, Bodhidarma's immediate successor as Patriarch of Chan Buddhism, may have been military men before retiring to the monastic life. Moreover, Chinese monasteries, not unlike those of Europe, in many ways were effectively large landed estates, that is, sources of considerable wealth which required protection that had to be supplied by the monasteries' own manpower.

In addition, the Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue, the Bibliographies in the Book of the Han Dynasty and the Records of the Grand Historian all document the existence of martial arts in China before Bodhidharma. The martial arts Shu?i Ji?o and Sun Bin Quan, to name two, predate the establishment of the Shaolin Monastery by centuries.[13]


Shaolin Kung Fu in the Tang Dynasty (618¡V907)
The oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 that attests to two occasions: a defense of the monastery from bandits around 610 and their role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621.

Like most dynastic changes, the end of the Sui Dynasty was a time of upheaval and contention for the throne. Wang Shichong was one of those who had declared himself Emperor. He controlled the territory of Zheng and the ancient capital of Luoyang.

Overlooking Luoyang on Mount Huanyuan was the Cypress Valley Estate, which had served as the site of a fort during the Jin and a commandery during the Southern Qi.[14] Sui Emperor Wen had bestowed the estate on a nearby monastery called Shaolin for its monks to farm but Wang Shichong, realizing its strategic value, seized the estate and there placed troops and a signal tower, as well as establishing a prefecture called Yuanzhou.[15] Furthermore, he had assembled an army at Luoyang to march on the Shaolin Temple itself.

The monks of Shaolin allied with Wang's enemy, Li Shimin, and took back the Cypress Valley Estate, defeating Wang's troops and capturing his nephew Renze.

Without the fort at Cypress Valley, there was nothing to keep Li Shimin from marching on Luoyang after his defeat of Wang's ally Dou Jiande at the Battle of Hulao, forcing Wang Shichong to surrender.

Li Shimin's father was the first Tang Emperor and Shimin himself became its second.

Thereafter Shaolin enjoyed the royal patronage of the Tang.

Though the Shaolin Monastery Stele of 728 attests to these incidents in 610 and 621 when the monks engaged in combat, note that it does not allude to martial training in the monastery, or to any fighting technique in which its monks specialized. Nor do any other sources from the Tang, Song and Yuan periods allude to military training at the temple, so even if it is possible or even likely that the Shaolin monastic regimen included martial arts, there is no documentation of it. According to Meir Shahar, this is explained by a confluence of the late-Ming fashion for military encyclopedias and, more importantly, the conscription of civilian irregulars¡Xincluding monks¡Xas a result of Ming military decline in the 16th century.[16]


Shaolin Kung Fu in the Ming Dynasty (1368¡V1644)
From the 8th to the 15th centuries, no extant source documents Shaolin participation in combat; then suddenly, the 16th and 17th centuries see at least forty extant sources attest that, not only did monks of Shaolin practice martial arts, but martial practice had become such an integral element of Shaolin monastic life that the monks felt the need to justify it by creating new Buddhist lore.[17] References to Shaolin martial arts appear in various literary genres of the late Ming: the epitaphs of Shaolin warrior monks, martial-arts manuals, military encyclopedias, historical writings, travelogues, fiction, and even poetry.[18]

These sources, in contrast to those from the Tang period, refer to Shaolin methods of combat unarmed, with the spear, and with the weapon that was the forte of the Shaolin monks and for which they had become famous¡Xthe staff.[19]

By the mid-16th century military experts from all over Ming China were Shaolin Kung Fu to Shaolin to study its fighting techniques.

Around 1560 Yu Dayou travelled to Shaolin Monastery to see for himself its monks' fighting techniques, but found them disappointing. Yu returned to the south with two monks, Shaolin Kung Fu and Pucong, whom he taught the use of the staff over the next three years, after which Zongqing and Pucong returned to Shaolin Monastery and taught their brother monks what they had learned. Martial arts historian Tang Hao traced the Shaolin staff style Five Tigers Interception[20] to Yu's teachings.

The earliest extant manual on Shaolin Kung Fu, the Exposition of the Original Shaolin Staff Method[21] was written around 1610 and published in 1621 from what its author Cheng Z?ngyou learned during a more than ten year stay at the monastery.

Conditions of lawlessness in Henan¡Xwhere the Shaolin Monastery is located¡Xand surrounding provinces during the late Ming Dynasty and all of the Qing Dynasty contributed to the development of martial arts. Meir Shahar lists the martial arts T'ai Chi Ch'uan, Chang Family Boxing, B?guaquan, Xingyiquan and B?jiquan as originating from this region and this time period.[22]
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